Studi Meta-analisis: Pengaruh Penambahan Kultur Starter pada Profil Fermentasi, Mikroorganisme, dan Metabolit Hasil Fermentasi Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)


  • Nafila Chaerunnisa Misbakh Universitas Bakrie
  • Laras Cempaka Universitas Bakrie
  • Wahyudi David Universitas Bakrie
  • Nurul Asiah Universitas Bakrie



cocoa, fermentation, meta-analysis, starter culture


Fermentation of cocoa beans can produce flavour precursors and colour changes in chocolate. Generally, this process is carried out for 5-7 days without adding starter culture. Adding a starter culture is considered to improve the quality of cocoa beans and shorten the fermentation time. The purpose of this study was to compare the starter cultures used in the cocoa bean fermentation process through a meta-analysis approach. Twenty-four related articles have been screened from the initial number of 110 articles. There are five starter cultures and six parameters that can be processed by Confidence Interval (CI) analysis. Calculating p and I2 values ​​using STATA software was performed to see variations between studies and test the significance of their effects during the fermentation process through p values. The variation test between studies showed that the profiles of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were heterogeneous. While the yeast profile, levels of lactic acid, acetic acid and pH between studies are homogeneous. The results of the study showed that the addition of starter culture will affect the levels of yeast profile (ES: 0.470; 95% CI: 0.371 to 0.569; p = 0.0); LAB profile (ES: 0.747; 95% CI: 0.600 to 0.894; p = 0,0); AAB profile (ES: 0.808; 95% CI: 0.663 to 0.953; p = 0.0); lactic acid (ES: -0.003; 95% CI: -0.162 to 0.156; p = 0.039); acetic acid (ES: 0.189; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.368; p = 0.039) and pH (ES: 0.109; 95% CI: 0.001 to 0.218; p = 0.049). Using pure starter cultures can increase the number of microbes of the type added and increase metabolic activity by showing a decrease in acetic acid levels in cocoa beans at the end of the fermentation process. However, no changes were seen in pH or lactic acid levels.


Download data is not yet available.


Adler, P., Frey, L., Berger, A., Bolten, C., Hansen, C., & Wittmann, C. (2014). The key to acetate: Metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation simulating conditions. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 4702-4716.

Ahn, E., & Kang, H. (2018). Introduction to systematic review and meta-analysis. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 71(2), 103-112.

Alamilla, P.G., Galvez, L.M.L., Fernandez, J.B., & Alamilla, R.G. (2017). Physicochemical changes of cocoa beans during roasting process. Journal of Food Quality, 1-11.

Apriyanto, M., & Rujiah, R. (2017a). Penurunan Total polifenol, etanol, asam laktat, asam asetat dan asam amino selama fermentasi biji kakao asalan dengan penambahan inokulum. Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia, 5(1), 1-8.

Apriyanto, M., Sutardi, S., Supriyanto, S., & Harmayani, E. (2017b). Fermentasi biji kakao kering menggunakan Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus lactis dan Acetobacter aceti. Agritech, 37(3), 302-311.

Apriyanto, M., Sutradi, S., Harmayani, S., & Supriyanto, S. (2016). Perbaikan proses fermentasi biji kakao non fermentasi dengan penambahan biakan murni Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus lactis dan Acetobacter aceti. Agritech, 36(4), 410-415.

Ariyanti, M. (2017). Karakteristik mutu biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) dengan perlakuan fermentasi berdasar SNI 2323-2008. Jurnal Industri Hasil Perkebunan, 12(1), 34-42.

Aryani, N. A., Yulianti, N. L., & Arda, G. (2018). Karakteristik biji kakao hasil fermentasi kapasitas kecil dengan jenis wadah dan lama fermentasi yang berbeda. Jurnal Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian, 6(1), 17-24.

Bertazzo, A., Comai, S, Mangiarini, F., & Chen, S. (2013). Composition of Cacao Beans. In W. R.R, & et al., Chocolate in Health and Nutrition (pp. 105-117). Springer Science and Business Media.

Calvo, A.M., Botina, B.L., Garcia, M.C., Cardona, W.A., Montenegro, A.C., & Criollo, J. (2021). Dynamics of cocoa fermentation and its effect on quality. Scientific reports: 11:16746.

Camu, N., De Winter, T., Verbrugghe, K., Cleenwerck, I., Takrama, J., Vancanneyt, M., & De Vuyst, L. (2007). Dynamics and biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria populations involved in spontaneous heap fermentations of cocoa beans in Ghana. Applied Environmental and Microbiology, 73(6), 1809-1824.

Cempaka, L., Aliwarga, L., Purwo, S., & Kresnowati, M.T.A.P. (2014). Dynamics of cocoa bean pulp degradation during cocoa bean fermentation: Effects of yeast starter culture addition. Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences, 46(1), 14-25.

Crafack, M., Keul, H., Eskildsen, C.E., Petersen, M.A., Saerens, S., Blennow, A., Larsen, M.S, Swiegers, J.H., Petersen, G.B., Heimdal, H., & Nielsen, D.S. (2014). Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate. Food Research International, 63: 306-316.

Crafack, M., Mikkelsen, M.B., Saerens, S., Knudsen, M., Blennow, A., Lowor, S., Takrama, J., Swiegers, J.H., Petersen, G.B., Heimdal, H., Nielsen, D.S. (2013). Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 167(1), 103-116.

Darius, Y. (2016). Perbandingan produk beras sosoh dan tidak sosoh dengan pendekatan meta analisis [Unpublished undergraduate thesis]. Universitas Bakrie.

Fang, Y., Li, R., Chu, Z., Zhu, K., Gu, F., and Zhang, Y. (2020). Chemical and flavor profiles changes of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) during primary fermentation. Food Science and Nutrition, 8 (8), 4121-4133.

Ganeswari, I., Khairul, B., Amizi, M., & Sim, K. (2015). Effects of different fermentation approaches on the microbiological and physicochemical changes during cocoa bean fermentation. International Food Research Journal, 22(1), 70-76.

Gutierrez, J. M., Botta, C, Ferrocino, I., Giordano, M., Bertolino, M., Dolci, P., Cannoni, M., & Cocolin, L. (2018). Dynamics and biodiversity of bacterial and yeast communities during the fermentation of cocoa beans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 84(19), e01164-18.

Holzapfel, W. (2002). Appropriate starter culture technologies for small-scale fermentation in developing countries. Journal Food Microbiology, 75(3), 197-212.

Jamili, J., Yanti, N. A., & Susilowati, P. E. (2016). Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 17(1), 90-95.

Kongor, J.E., Hinneh, M., Walle, D.V.d., Afoakwa, E.O, Boeckx, P., & Dewettinck, K. (2016). Factors influencing quality variation in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean flavour profile — A review. Food Research Journal, 82, 44-52.

Kresnowati, M.T.A.P., & Febriami, H. (2015). Mapping the effects of starter culture addition on cocoa bean fermentation. ASEAN Engineering Journal Part B, 5(1), 25-37.

Kresnowati, M.T.A.P, Suryani, S., & Affifah, M. (2013). Improvement of cocoa beans fermentation by LAB starter addition. Journal of Medical and Bioengineering, 2(4), 274-278.

Kustyawati, M., & Setyani, S. (2008). Pengaruh penambahan inokulum campuran terhadap perubahan kimia dan mikrobiologi selama fermentasi cokelat. Jurnal Teknologi Industri dan Hasil Pertanian, 13(2), 73-84.

Lefeber, T., Papalexandratou, Gobert, W, Camu, N., & Vuyst, L.D. (2012). On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced theorof. Food Microbiology, 30, 379-392.

Meryandini, A., Fauzi, A.M., Syamsu, K, & Munarso, S.J. (2019). Peningkatan kualitas biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L) melalui fermentasi menggunakan Lactobacillus sp. dan Pichia kudriavzevii. Jurnal Bioteknologi dan Biosains Indonesia, 6(1), 11-19.

Miguel, M.G.d.C.P, Reis, L.V.d.C, Efraim, P., Santos, C., Lima, N., & Schwan, R.F. (2016). Cocoa fermentation: Microbial identification by MALDI-TOF MS, and sensory evaluation of produced chocolate. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 77, 362-369.

Misgiyarta, Fauzi, A. M., Syamsu, K., & Munarso, S. J. (2019). Pemilihan starter cair unggul untuk fermentasi biji kakao. Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, 16(1), 19-24.

Misnawi, M., Tunjungsari, A.B., Febrianto, N.A., Adiandri, R.S., Fahrizal, F., & Fahrurrozi, F. (2017). Improvement of small scale cocoa fermentation using Lactobacillus fermentum as starter culture. Pelita Perkebunan, 33, 203-210.

Munarso, S. J., Kun, T., & Zahra, H. (2016). Pengaruh penambahan starter mikroba serta pemerasan pulp terhadap kondisi fermentasi dan mutu biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L.). Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, 13(3), 156-166.

Ooi, T., Ting, A., & Siow, L. (2020). Influence of Selected native yeast starter cultures on the antioxidant activities, fermentation index and total soluble solids of Malaysia cocoa beans: A simulation study. Food Science and Technology, 122, 108977.

Pereira, G.V.M., Alvarez, J.P., Neto, D.P.d.C., Soccol, V.T., Tanobe, V.O.A., Rogez, H., Neto, A.G., Soccol, C.R. (2017). Great intraspecies diversity of Pichia kudriavzevii in cocoa fermentation highlights the importance of yeast strain selection for flavor modulation of cocoa beans. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 84, 290-297.

Purwanto, E.H., Setyabudi, S., & Supriyanto, S. (2019). Aktivitas mikrob dalam pulp biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) selama fermentasi dengan penambahan ragi tape. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, 6(1), 21-32.

Qin, X.W., Lai, J.X., Tan, L.H., Hao, C.Y., Li, F.P., He, S.Z., & Song, Y.H. (2015). Characterization of volatile compounds in criollo, forastero and trinitario cocoa seeds in China. International Journal of Food Properties, 20(10), 2261-2275. https://10.1080/10942912.2016.1236270

Ramos, C. L., Dias, D.R., Miguel, M.G.d.C.P., & Schwan, R.F. (2014). Impact of different cocoa hybrids (Theobroma cacao L.) and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 inoculation on microbial comunities and volatile compounds of cocoa fermentation. Food Research International, 64, 908-918.

Sabahannur, S., Netty, Alimuddin, S., & Nirwana. (2018). Study of tape yeast and sucrose addition to cocoa bean fermentation (Theobroma cocoa L.) on small scale. Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies, 5(4), 271-275.

Sandhya, M.V.S., Yallappa, B.S., Varadaraj, M.C, Puranaik, J., Rao, L.J., Janardhan, P., & Murthy, P. S. (2016). Inoculum of the starter consortia and interactive metabolic process in enhancing quality of cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao) fermentation. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 65, 731-738.

Santos, D.S. Rezende, R.P., Santos, T.F.d., Marques, E.d.L.S., Ferreira, A.C.R., Silva, A.B.d.C.e., Romano, C.C., Santos, D.W.d.C., Dias, J.C.T. & Bisneto, J.D.T. (2020). Fermentation in fine cocoa type scavina: Change in standard quality as the effect of use of starter yeast in fermentation. Food Chemistry, 328, 1-15.

Satryo, B.D., Arnata, I.W., & Arnata, I.W. (2015). Pengaruh penambahan ragi tape dan waktu fermentasi terhadap karakteristik cairan pulpa hasil samping fermentasi biji kakao. Jurnal Rekayasa dan Manajemen Agroindustri, 3(1), 11-18.

Saunshi, Y.B, Sandhya, M.V.G., Rastogi, N.K., & Murthy, P.S. (2019). Starter consortia for on-farm cocoa fermentation and their quality attributes. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 50(3), 272-280.

Schwan, R.F, & Fleet, G.H. (2015). Cocoa and Coffee Fermentation. CRC Press.

Visintin, S., Ramos, C., Batista, N., Dolci, P., Schwan, R., & Cocolin, L. (2017). Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulospora delbrueckii starter cultures on cocoa beans fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 257, 31-40.

Vuyst, L.D., & Weckx, S. (2016). The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 121(1), 5-17.

Vuyst, L.D, Lefeber, T., Papalexandratou, Z., & Camu, N. (2010). The Functional Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Bean Fermentation. Biotechnology of Lactic Acid Bacteria Novel Applications (pp. 301-322). Blackwell Publishing.

Wahyuni, N.L., Sunarhanum, W.B., Muhammad, D.R.A., & Saputro, A.D. (2021). Formation and development of flavour of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) cultivar Criollo and Forastero: a review. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 733, No. 1, p. 012078). IOP Publishing.

Widianto, D., Pramita, A.D., & Wedhastri, S. (2013). Perbaikan proses fermentasi biji kakao kering dengan penambahan tetes tebu, khamir, dan bakteri asam asetat. Jurnal Teknosains, 3(1), 38-44.



How to Cite

Misbakh, N. C., Cempaka, L., David, W., & Asiah, N. (2022). Studi Meta-analisis: Pengaruh Penambahan Kultur Starter pada Profil Fermentasi, Mikroorganisme, dan Metabolit Hasil Fermentasi Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.). Jurnal Agro Industri Perkebunan, 10(2), 77-96.