High School Teachers’ Expository Writing: A Case Study in Bandar Lampung

Refdi Akmal

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Penelitian ini menelaah kemampuan guru sekolah menengah atas di Bandar Lampung dalam menulis wacana eksposisi. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain studi kasus deskriptif kualitatif  dengan data berupa wacana-wacana eksposisi Analitikal dan Hortatori yang ditulis oleh para guru yang dianalisis dengan pendekatan Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) dan dikemudian divalidasi melalui interview. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian dari para guru telah mampu menulis menggunakan strategi yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan wacana.  Para guru telah memahami struktur generik wacana guna mencapai tujuan dan fungsi wacana eksposisi. Analisis gramatika pada wacana menunjukkan bahwa para guru telah mampu menyampaikan makna ideasional, tekstual dan interpersonal melalui wacana tertulis.  Hal tersebut ditunjukan dalam bentuk penggunaan fitur pengembangan tema (thematic progression) berupa pola tema zigzag, reiterasi tema dan pengembangan tema bertingkat (multy-layer Theme development), fungsi konjungsi, variasi bentuk kata kerja (process type), bentukan fungsi sirkumstansial, bentukan nominalisasi, penggunaan mudalisasi dan modulasi dalam  wacana serta penggunaan referensi pronomina (pronoun referent) dalam wacana.  Namun penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa tidak semua guru mampu mengembangkan argumentasi dalam wacana tulis dengan baik yang ditunjukkan dengan kurangnya penggunaan fakta dan bukti yang obyektif dalam wacana, ketidakpastian pendapat, tidak adanya penggunaan fitur dialogis antar wacana (intertextuality), penerapan bentukan kalimat perintah (imperative) dan pernyataan realis serta sejumlah kesalahan (errors) dalam tataran tata bahasa (syntax).  Hal ini disebabkan beberapa hal seperti kurangnya pemahaman guru dalam pengembangan wacana berbasis genre (Genre Based Approach/(GBA)) dan Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) yang telah menjadi bagian dari kurikulum pendidikan bahasa Inggeris di Indonesia, juga kemampuan professional berbahasa guru (professional competence), dan kurangnya motivasi dan komitmen dalam menulis.  

 

Kata kunci: Systemic Functional Lingistics (SFL), kemampuan  menulis wacana eksposisi


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Referensi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25181/esai.v6i2.1008

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